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The motherhood penalty in the Brazilian labor market: an age-period-cohort analysis

Iracy Pimenta, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)
Simone Wajnman, Cedeplar, UFMG
Gilvan R. Guedes, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)

This work aims to investigate the existence of a motherhood penalty in the Brazilian labor market, analyzing differences in participation and hourly wages of mothers and childless women at different points of their lives, as well as in different periods and cohorts. For this purpose, the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) models were used to analyze hourly wages and labor participation rates of mothers and non-mothers between 25 and 48 years old, in the years from 1992 to 2015. Descriptive results showed that mothers have lower incomes and labor participation rates compared to non-mothers throughout the life course, but the differences are reduced in older ages. The results for the APC models showed that age and period dimensions combined offers the best arrange to explain hourly wages and labor participation rates of mothers and non-mothers, with greater effects for the former.

Keywords: Human capital and labour markets, Gender

See paper.

  Presented in Session 28. Gender Differentials in Human Capital and Labour Force Participation