Changing urban ecology and transformation of an Indian city: Kolkata from 1971-2011

Devarupa Gupta, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS)

Changing internal structure of a city and population segmentation, distribution, accessibility, and availability of basic amenities is an important topic of discussion. This study aimed to understand the changing urban ecology of an Indian city (Kolkata) with access to basic amenities and infrastructure. Data at the ward level from 1971 to 2011 was accessed on socio-economic, demographic, and housing variables for Kolkata Municipal Corporation area from Census. Factor Analysis on year-wise data and choropleth maps of factor scores were plotted. From 1971 to 1991, Calcutta showed a high social groupism and workforce gradient factor, especially near the periphery. SC/ST population associated with primary activities. Northern and central Calcutta relatively had higher literacy and workforce gradients. In last two decades, a significant change in the workforce composition and literacy in south and east happened. Better housing conditions prevailed in southern Kolkata. The social groupism and workforce gradient shifted to third important principal factor with the introduction of slum population from 2001. Slum population correlated positively with marginal workers, high population density, etc., and negatively associated with housing conditions. Population distribution and characteristics with unequal access to basic amenities and infrastructure were prominent over slum dwellings than on caste stratification in Kolkata.

Keywords: Urbanization and urban populations, Census data, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Population geography

See extended abstract.

  Presented in Session P12.