Self-esteem and control over resources are positively associated with reporting of intimate partner violence among married with: Evidence from a cross-sectional survey in rural Uttar Pradesh, India

Jaleel Ahmad, Population Council
Avishek Hazra, Population Council

Objective: The paper explored the interrelationship between women’s empowerment domains and their reported experience of intimate partner violence in rural Northern India. Methods: The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among currently married women of age 15-49 years. The key dependent variables were women’s reported experience of intimate partner violence– emotional, physical, and sexual by their partners in the last 12 months. The main independent variables included four composite indices of women’s empowerment – freedom of mobility, ability to make household decisions, control over resources, and self-esteem. Findings: More than 45 percent of women reported experience any form of violence in the last 12 months preceding the survey. The regression results indicate Women’s SHG membership had a significant negative relationship with intimate partner violence – the odds of reporting intimate partner violence were lesser among members than non-members. Women with high self-esteem and high control over resources were more likely to report all forms of violence with odds ratio ranging between 1.16-1.33 (p<0.01). Implications: The results argue to empower women, raise their self-esteem, and increase their participation in decision making to challenge the inequitable conditions prevalent in the rural society in India.

Keywords: Gender, Inequality

See paper.

  Presented in Session 157. Female Empowerment, Fertility and Sexual Violence