Joel E. E. Cohen, Rockefeller University and Columbia University
Stewart (1947) and Clark (1951) proposed that urban population density is a negative exponential function of the distance from a city's center. This model has been influential in urban economics, transportation planning, and urban demography. Duncan (1957) suggested characterizing the inequality in the distribution of urban population density in this model by using standard economic measures of concentration or unevenness: the Lorenz curve, the Gini coefficient, and the Hoover dissimilarity index. Batty (1974) advocated measuring concentration using relative entropy. We execute their suggestions using mathematical analysis, not simulations. We modify the negative exponential model to recognize that any city has a finite radius. Mathematical analysis reveals that all four measures of concentration depend sensitively on the boundary radius in the negative exponential model. We give a numerical example of the sensitivity of the concentration measures to the boundary radius. In empirical applications of the negative exponential model of urban population density, it is important to have consistent standards for defining urban boundaries. Otherwise, differences between cities or over time within the same city in these and perhaps other measures of concentration could be due at least in part to differences in defining the radius or other boundaries of the city.
Keywords: Urbanization and urban populations, Mathematical demography, Spatial dependence/heterogeneity, Population geography
Presented in Session 83. Data and Methods: A Medley of Perspectives