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The Impact of Income and Socioeconomic Characteristics on Education: A Gender Differences Analysis

Humaira Kamal Pasha, Universite Clermont Auvergne Clermont-Ferrand France

This paper determines education attainment and current enrollment with the help of per capita income and socio-economic characteristics of the households in the framework of gender differences by using Pakistani data from 2005-2016. It deals with potential endogeneity in non-linear models by using Two Stage Residual Inclusion approach. Additionally, it examines the impact of educational inequalities, develops alternative strategy for economic growth and decomposes the gender effects in a household. Findings provide significant effect of household’s income on education attainment and current enrollment. However, educational transition appears higher from primary to secondary education attainment, however, personal attributes and household infrastructure are favorable for girls. In contrast, income per capita, educated members, digital access and provincial heterogeneity significantly contribute in boys’ current enrollment. Meanwhile, as compared to standard deviation, Gini coefficient of schooling significantly reduces education among girls. The Oaxaca decomposition demonstrates explained gender disparity in education attainment and current enrollment by 61 and 41 percent respectively; however, most of the variation remains unexplained. Findings from alternative specification provides significant decrease in income with gender gap in education and its impact is comparatively lower among boys. The study recommends government interventions to reduce gender gap by investing in females’ human capital.

Keywords: Inequality, Family demography, Longitudinal studies, Gender

See paper.

  Presented in Session 35. Gender Inequalities: Drivers and Impacts