Dynamics of Fertility and Family Planning among the Urban Poor in India: Findings from NFHS 2, 3 and 4

Siddharth Agarwal, Urban Health Resource Center
S Kaushik, Independent Consultant & Researcher

Background : The slum population comprising 17.4% (65.5 million) of India’s urban population, grew at 25.1% between 2001 and 2011. Methodology: We compare the bottom quartile of the urban sample with the remaining urban population from three rounds of NFHS conducted between 1998-99 and 2015-16, to examine trends in fertility and family planning and intra-urban disparities. Findings: Although TFR among the lowest urban quartile declined from 3.8 in 1998-99 to 2.8 in 2004-05 and to 2.28 in 2015-16, the lowest quartile witnessed high teenage fertility (63 births per 1000) in 2014-15 as compared to 26 per 1000 births in the remaining urban population. Higher order births (>3) and closely spaced births (<24 months) among urban poor are 34.6% and 33.5% in 2015-16 as compared to 16.4% and 25% among the remaining urban population. Modern contraceptive usage has stagnated in the ten years between NFHS-3 and 4. Across India overall, Only 17.7% non-users of contraceptive methods were ever told about FP by a health worker in 2015-16. Conclusion: It is crucial to address the FP and healthy motherhood among the urban poor through improved counselling, access to information and services.

Keywords: Urbanization and urban populations, Family planning and contraception, Fertility and childbirth, Health and morbidity

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  Presented in Session 158. Urban Demography and Segregation